Summit Institutional Repository @ PSU

Summit Institutional Repository @ Plymouth State University is a digital repository for gathering, indexing, preserving, and making available a treasury of research and scholarly work generated by PSU faculty, students and staff. Based on the principle of Open Access, one of Summit's key missions is to ensure that these scholarly and creative endeavors are accessible to the widest possible audience.

These collections are freely available, organized, made accessible by PSU's Lamson Library. They demonstrate the summit of academic production at the University and its commitment to encourage transformational teaching and connected learning, to advance the Plymouth State University motto - Ut prosim (That I may serve). The content is available to be used responsibly under fair use US copyright law for personal and educational purposes or with the permission of the authors and/or copyright holders. For more information about submitting your work to Summit, please contact us at

Recent Submissions

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    Government credit risk and private capital participation in public-private partnership: The case of local governments in China
    (Journal of Business & Economic Policy, 2023-03) Li, Jie; Wu, Chen; Li, Wei
    In China the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) projects are adopted to achieve the strategic goals of governments and to ensure the sustainable operation of local government finances. However, rigorous empirical research on the determinants of private capital’s participation in PPP is sparse. This study investigates the effects of government behaviours on the participation of private capital in the PPP projects by focusing on the role of government credit risks. We construct a dynamic game and adopt an empirical analysis using panel data of Chinese provinces from 2013 to 2018. Our findings reveal a significant inverse relationship between the government credit risk and the private capital participation in PPP. It provides policy-makers and researchers with useful information about using the PPP to promote investment on infrastructures while ensuring a sustainable local fiscal system.
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    Mathematical Narratives and Perspectives of Emerging Elementary Educators
    (2023-05) Banks, Stephanie
    AN ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATION OF Stephanie M. Banks for the degree of Doctor of Education Presented on February 9, 2023 Title: Mathematical Narratives and Perspectives of Emerging Elementary Educators Abstract approved: February 13, 2023 Annette M. Holba, PhD Dissertation Chair This narrative inquiry study explored how emerging elementary educators perceived their understanding of mathematics learning and teaching as they became elementary educators. The study considered how past experiences influenced emerging educators’ frames of reference as they began to teach elementary mathematics. Methods consisted of individual interviews and focus groups with pre-service and in-service elementary educators. Participants also completed a mathematics self-efficacy inventory. Findings indicated participants embraced new mathematics strategies and valued mathematics reasoning over memorization, however, deeply rooted habits of mind, particularly related to beliefs about mathematics abilities persisted. Participants described challenges primarily associated with mathematics programs used by their schools and districts. Furthermore, many participants discussed a practice disconnect between what they learned in their teacher preparation programs and the realities of being in a classroom. Teacher educators should acknowledge prior experiences and incoming beliefs of pre-service teachers and may need to provide opportunities to question and deconstruct unproductive beliefs and attitudes in the pre-service classroom.
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    Shoveling the Ramp: Exploring the Connections Between Nature-Based Learning and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
    (2023-08) Cinquemani, Aaron
    AN ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATION OF Aaron J.T. Cinquemani for the degree of Doctor of Education Presented on April 26, 2023 Title: Shoveling the Ramp: Exploring the Connections Between Nature-Based Learning and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Abstract approved: ____________________________________ April 30, 2023 Roxana Wright, Ph.D. Dissertation Committee Chair This research study used qualitative descriptive (QD) research methods to explore the perceptions, perspectives, and experiences of four educators who had access to nature- based learning (NBL) opportunities, and who taught students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods consisted of the anonymous collection of volunteer participant answers to a questionnaire. Additionally, participants had the option to anonymously answer emergent questions as they arose from coding cycles. This study showed that educators perceive students with ADHD, and all students that struggle in school academically, and/or behaviorally, and have exposure to NBL tended to be more successful. This study also showed that educator participants need access to NBL pedagogy, and ADHD pedagogy professional development to more intentionally expose students to the behavioral and academic benefits NBL opportunities provide. The central findings of this study suggest teacher preparation programs, state departments of educations, local school districts, and school administrators should learn more about and acknowledge the restorative characteristics of NBL for at-risk students, and all students. To achieve this, education institutions should invest in quality professional development, and/or coursework specifically on attention restoration theory (ART). By intentionally integrating NBL and ADHD pedagogy into teaching practices and school programming through a strong understanding of ART, educators can help an increasing number of at-risk American student’s better access school. More equitable and inclusive access to school can increase attendance rates and decrease behavioral and/or academic challenges for students with ADHD.
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    Perceptions of Belonging in Secondary Independent School: A Retrospective Case Study Comparing Experiences of Former Scholarship and Non-Scholarship Students
    (2023-05) Love, Daniel; Gaulocher, Suzanne; Gaulocher, Suzanne; Orf Dutille, Jessica; Eisenhauer, Brian; Bowditch, Nathaniel

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