School climate and collective teacher efficacy in rural elementary schools during in-person and remote instruction

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rural elementary schools, school climate, collective teacher efficacy, federal accountability, in-person and remote instruction, Coronavirus pandemic
Marcotte, Kelly E.
The purpose of this study was to determine if, at rural elementary schools in New Hampshire, there was a significant difference between participants' beliefs about school climate and collective teacher efficacy (CTE) during in-person and remote instruction in order to determine best practices to support teacher retention, and ultimately, increase student achievement. Participants' perceived beliefs of school climate and CTE were reported for both in-person and remote instruction, due to the Coronavirus pandemic, using the Revised School Level Environment Questionnaire (RSLEQ) and the Collective Teacher Efficacy Belief Scale (CTEBS). Responses were paired to test for significance using the paired samples t-test and means were examined for areas of strength and weaknesses between the two sampling sessions. There were four variables that had significant differences: school resources and instructional innovation from the RSLEQ survey, and both variables from the CTEBS survey, instructional strategies and student discipline. In all areas that had a significant difference, rural remote teachers reported that they felt more effective teaching inperson. Implications, based on these results, including recommendations for rural school administrators, are discussed in depth.